1) Full Bench Formula was claimed in which case?

Muir Mills Co. Ltd. V. Suti Mills Mazdoor Union, Kanpur(1955)



2) What do we call the measures by the government to aid the poor and needy?

Social Assurance or Assistance.


3) What is the meaning of living and minimum wages?

Fair wages.


4) Is the doctrine of National extension admissible under ECA?



5) What is the wage limit under the Payment of Bonus Act?


6) What is the maximum amount of ALS that can be carried forward to the next year?

Accounting for up to 20%.


7) Where is the set on/set off illustrated in _____under the Bonus Act?

Schedule –IV


8) What is the normal formula for calculating statutory bonus?

GP-Prior charges. (Gross Profit – Prior Charges)


9) What is the wage limit for the purpose of calculating bonus?

₹7,000/- or minimum wages prescribed by the government.


10) What is the minimum number of working days to be eligible for bonus?

30 days.


11) How many schedules are there in ECA?

4 Schedule


12) Available surplus is the gross profit for the year after deducting the expenses referred to in Sec-6.


13) The National Old Age Pension Scheme is an example of social security assistance.


14)      PartA                                                   Part B

Full Bench formula                           Social Security

William Beveridge                             Bonus

Fair wages committee                                  Partial disablement

Reduction of earning capacity                     Min wages



15) POWA wage limit is doesn’t specify – 24000

16) What is the wage limit for calculating compensation?



17) Identify doctrines that are in ECA (Employees Compensation Act).
1. Doctrine of Strict Liability
2. Doctrine of Exclusive Remedy
3. Doctrine of Statutory Benefits
4. Doctrine of Proximate Cause
5. Doctrine of Presumption
6. Doctrine of Occupational Disease
7. Doctrine of Notice
8. Doctrine of Pre-existing Conditions
9. Doctrine of Compensation Review


18) The wage period shall not exceed more than one month.


19) The total amount of fines shall not be more than 3%  of the wages payable in a wage period.


20) The concept of living wages was given by whom? – No Answer


1. Types of Wages:

  1. Hourly Wages
  2. Salary
  3. Piece-Rate Wages
  4. Commission
  5. Overtime Pay
  6. Holiday Pay
  7. Bonuses
  8. Allowances
  9. Tips or Gratuities
  10. Severance Pay



Types of Wages:

  • Wages refer to monetary compensation paid by an employer to an employee for the work done.
  • Types of wages include:
    • Basic Wage: The fixed amount of money paid regularly for the work performed.
    • Dearness Allowance (DA): Additional compensation provided to offset the impact of inflation.
    • Overtime Pay: Compensation for working beyond regular working hours.
    • Bonus: Additional payment given based on performance, productivity, or company profits.
    • Incentives: Monetary rewards for achieving specific targets or goals.
  1. Social Security:
    • Social security encompasses various programs aimed at providing financial assistance and support to individuals and families facing economic hardship.
    • It includes benefits such as:
      • Old Age Pension: Financial support for retired individuals.
      • Disability Benefits: Compensation for individuals unable to work due to a disability.
      • Unemployment Benefits: Financial assistance for individuals who lose their jobs involuntarily.
      • Healthcare Coverage: Access to medical services and treatment.
    • Social security programs are often administered by government agencies and funded through taxes or contributions from employers and employees.


  1. Authorized Deductions under POWA:
    • POWA stands for Payment of Wages Act, which regulates the payment of wages to employees.
    • Authorized deductions refer to specific deductions permitted by law or agreed upon by the employee for various purposes.
    • Examples of authorized deductions include:
      • Tax withholdings as per government regulations.
      • Contributions to provident funds or retirement schemes.
      • Insurance premiums for health, life, or disability coverage.
      • Loan repayments authorized by the employee.


  1. Provision for Fixation of Minimum Wages:
    • Minimum wage laws establish the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their employees for work performed.
    • The provision for fixing minimum wages aims to ensure that workers receive fair compensation to meet their basic needs and maintain a decent standard of living.
    • Factors considered when fixing minimum wages include:
      • Cost of living in the region or locality.
      • Skill level and type of work.
      • Prevailing wage rates in similar industries.
      • Economic conditions and inflation rates.
    • Minimum wage rates may vary across different industries, occupations, and regions.


  1. Employer’s Liability to Pay Compensation:
    • An employer is liable to pay compensation to employees in cases of injury, disability, or death arising out of and in the course of employment.
    • The liability of the employer extends to:
      • Compensation for medical expenses incurred due to the injury.
      • Disability benefits for temporary or permanent disability.
      • Compensation to dependents in case of death.
    • The compensation payable is determined based on factors such as the nature and severity of the injury, the employee’s wages, and the duration of disability.
    • Employers are required to provide a safe working environment and take preventive measures to minimize the risk of accidents or injuries to employees.


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