1) Classification of lands for ceiling purpose:

  1. a) Wet
  2. b) Forest
  3. c) Desert
  4. d) Rural


2) Is the digital platform created and maintained for the purpose of ROR:

  1. a) Dharani
  2. b) E-Sewa
  3. c) Both
  4. d) None


3) Shershah’s fame mainly rested with:

  1. a) Military reforms
  2. b) Administrative reforms
  3. c) Land reforms
  4. d) Social reforms


4) Who introduced reforms in the land revenue system:

  1. a) Warren Hastings
  2. b) Sir John Shore
  3. c) Lord Cornwallis
  4. d) Lord Wellesley


5) Right to property is no more a fundamental right under part-III of the Indian constitution by which Amendment:

  1. a) 42nd Amendment
  2. b) 44th Amendment
  3. c) 52nd Amendment
  4. d) 62nd Amendment


6) The first case before the Supreme Court regarding the Constitutional validity of the 1st Amendment Act was challenged in:

  1. a) Kameshwar vs. State of Bihar
  2. b) Shankari Prasad vs. Union of India
  3. c) Golaknath vs. State of Punjab
  4. d) Kesavananda Bharati vs. State of Kerala


7) The “Tenure settlement” was called as:

  1. a) Permanent Settlement
  2. b) Temporary Settlement
  3. c) Interim Settlement
  4. d) Permanent and Temporary Settlement


8) The land revenue system implemented by the Britishers in India:

  1. a) Zamindari
  2. b) Ryotwari
  3. c) Mahalwari
  4. d) All of the above


9) Ryotwari system was introduced by:

  1. a) Thomas Munroe
  2. b) Sir Thomas Roe
  3. c) Lord William Bentinck
  4. d) Warren Hastings


10) Land held under a gift or grant by Nizam or or Jagirdhar or other competent person

  1. a) Inam
  2. c) Jagir
  3. d) Tagirdhar




1) Principle of Eminent Domain: Based on “Salus populi est suprema lex” (welfare of the people is the paramount law).


2) Article-296 of the Constitution: Contemplates the Doctrine of Escheat to cover ownerless property.


3) Records prepared & maintained electronically in Dharani portal.


4) Kautilya’s Artha Shastra: Mentions land reforms.


5)  Zamindar: Holder of large estates deriving rights from sovereign for collecting rents & taxes.


6) Doctrine of Escheat:  Involves legal transfer of ownerless property to the crown.


7) ROR: Contains ownership details.


8) Board of Revenue: Foundation of the entire revenue administration rests.


9) Ownership in land: Can be absolute or limited.

10) Possession defines ownership as: Plenary control over objects.




1) Bona Vacantia:

– Legal concept concerning ownerless property.

– Property that has no apparent owner or heir.

– Often reverts to the state or government.

– Originates from Latin, meaning “vacant goods.”

– Can include unclaimed inheritance, abandoned land, or assets with no rightful claimant.


2) Zamindari System:

– Land revenue system introduced by British colonial rulers in India.

– Zamindars acted as intermediaries between the state and cultivators.

– Zamindars were granted ownership rights over land and collected revenue from peasants.

– Led to exploitative practices and agrarian unrest.

– Abolished after independence in 1947 through land reforms aimed at redistributing land.


3) Mahalwari System:

– Land revenue system also introduced by British colonial rulers.

– Revenue was collected from individual villages or mahals.

– Villages collectively held responsibility for revenue payment.

– Aimed to simplify revenue collection and foster local responsibility.

– Implemented in some regions of British India alongside other systems.


4) ROR (Record of Rights):

– Document detailing land ownership, cultivation, and rights.

– Essential for establishing ownership and resolving disputes.

– Contains information on landholders, tenants, and their respective rights.

– Maintained by revenue authorities or land record departments.

– Provides a legal framework for land transactions and land use.


5) Land Reforms in Ancient India:

– Historical efforts to redistribute land ownership.

– Associated with rulers like Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka.

– Aimed to address inequalities in land ownership and social justice.

– Included measures such as land grants to farmers and regulation of land tenure.

– Contributed to economic development and social stability in ancient Indian society.




Leave a Reply