1) Acquisition of Res Nullius:

  1. a) Original Ownership
  2. b) Derived Ownership
  3. c) Mere Custody
  4. d) Accessory Ownership


2) Oppenheim’s definition International Law talks about:

  1. a) Developing States
  2. b) Civilized States
  3. c) Developed States
  4. d) Non-Civilized States


3) Who is considered the father of PIL?

  1. a) Hugo Grotius
  2. b) Fisher
  3. c) Brown
  4. d) All of the above


4) Observation of International Law as a Law was made by:

  1. a) Austin
  2. b) Hobbes
  3. c) Brown
  4. d) Fisher


5) Who wrote “De Jure Belli ac Pacis”?

  1. a) Hugo Grotius
  2. b) Holland
  3. c) Fisher
  4. d) Baty


6) Which source was mentioned for the first time in Article 38 of the Permanent Court of International Justice?

  1. a) Convention
  2. b) Custom
  3. c) General principles recognized by civilized States
  4. d) None of Above


7) A state is and becomes an international person through recognition only and exclusively. By:

  1. a) Al Oppenheim
  2. b) Hobbes
  3. c) Fenwick
  4. d) Hostat


8) The rule of state succession was incorporated from:

  1. a) Roman Law
  2. b) Charter of UN
  3. c) Latin Law
  4. d) Greek Law


9) International law is the vanishing point of jurisprudence was opined by:

  1. a) Holland
  2. b) Hall
  3. c) Kelson
  4. d) Fisher


10) How many types of State Recognition in International Law?

  1. a) 2
  2. b) 8
  3. c) 7
  4. d) 1



1) What is meant by Pacta sunt servanda?  Promises must be kept.


2) Codification means process of compiling and organizing laws into a systematic code.


3) A provisional recognition of an existing state is called defacto recognition.


4) What are the kinds of state succession? Universal, Partial


5) PIL is also called as Law of Nations.


6) Auto limitation theory is coined by Jellinek.


7) According to Monistic theory, Municipal Law & International Law, Both are the same.


8) What are the elements of State? Population, Territory, Government, Sovereignty.


9) Formal acknowledgment of an entity by an existing country is called recognition.


10) Substitution of one state by another state is called succession.





  1. De facto Recognition: This is a provisional acknowledgment of the existence of a state by another state based on the factual control exercised by the former over a territory. It does not imply legal acknowledgment or full diplomatic relations.

De jure Recognition: This is a formal acknowledgment of a state’s sovereignty by another state based on legal principles. It signifies acceptance of the state’s international status and often involves establishing diplomatic relations.

  1. Modes of Acquisition & Loss of Territory:
    • Acquisition: Territory can be acquired through various means, including discovery, occupation, prescription, accretion, cession, and conquest.
    • Loss: Territory can be lost through abandonment, transfer (cession), occupation by another state, or prescription.
  2. Sources of International Law:
    • Treaties and Agreements
    • Customary International Law
    • General Principles of Law
    • Judicial Decisions and Scholarly Works
  3. Advantages & Disadvantages of Recognition:
    • Advantages: Establishes diplomatic relations, facilitates trade and communication, promotes stability and security.
    • Disadvantages: Can legitimize oppressive regimes, create diplomatic tensions, and affect the recognition state’s international standing.
  4. Subjugation: Subjugation refers to the act of bringing a territory or people under control or domination, often through conquest or forceful imposition of authority. It implies the subordination of one entity to another, typically in a hierarchical manner.



Leave a Reply